AYURVEDA
Dr Santosh Singh *
Consultant Ayurvedacharya, Levioza Health Care, Mumbai, India.*
What is Ayurveda?

Ayurveda

is not only the oldest Indian, but also the oldest medical science in the world. Infact, some researchers have also proclaimed it to be the fifth Veda (veda = knowledge) of India. But, in reality it is part of Arthvaveda.

Every living being desires a happy and a long life. Ayurveda is the way to achieve a healthy and disease free life.

"Swasthaya cha Swasthaya rakshanam, Atuarashiye Vikar Prashman:"
Ayurveda: (Ayur =life; veda =knowledge)
is the science of life. All the knowledge regarding life, even in the ages beyond, is available in Ayurveda. Ayurveda cures the disease, helps people lead a healthy life and achieve a long life. Renowned ayurvedic teacher "Charkacharya" has said that " The best medicine (Aushad) should be such that it cures the patient and the best doctor is that who cures the patient."

Ayurveda is not only a medical science, but it is an insight, which helps to protect the health of healthy men and cures the malady of a diseased man. In addition, it also caters to complete social happiness and also presents a direction to the spiritual and godly joy. One special aspect of Ayurveda is that it treats the human being as a whole, whereas other medical sciences treat only a particular diseased part of the body. [It is considered in Ayurveda that the human body is made of 24 elements (chaturvisaatitatvaatmak samast purush )]

In Ayurveda, one can also get knowledge about religion, art, literature, philosphopy and science. Charkacharya has said that "In this world, each and everything can be used as a medicine."

"Naanauausadhibhutam Jagati kichidh Dravyamuplabhamahe"


The origin of Ayurveda has come from the sanskrit word "Ayushoveda".

"Chaitanya nuvartan Mayu : "


A living body is called life. Ayu= The combination of body (sharir), senses (Indrya), mind (Man) and soul (Attma) is called life (Ayu). The state of liveliness is called life(Ayu)(Ayurjeevitkaal Author: Amarkosh ,2/8/120).

Till one is alive, one has life. The age of a living body is called life (Ayu). The combination of body and soul is called as life and the period from conception to death is called age (Ayu).

Synonyms of "Age (Ayu)"

in sanskrit are Ayu, Dhaari, Jeevit, Nityagya and Anubandh. Veda denotes knowledge. Its origin has come from the sanskrit word "Vid". The meaning of Vid can be taken as, what is already present (astitva), what can be attainable (Veti- Gyaayate), what can be thought about (Vite, vichaaryate) and what can be achieved ( Vindate Vindati Labhyate).
Definition of Ayurveda
Ayurveda is defined along the path of good and bad matter (Dravya), good or bad quality and the good or bad actions of a living being. Also, the length of life and its quality are described here. The concept of health is categorized into 4 parts:
- Good living (Hitayu)
- Unfavorable living (Ahitayu)
- Happy living (Sukhayu)
- Miserable living (Dukhayu)

"Hitaahit sukh dukhmayustasay hitahitam | Maan Cha Tach yatroktamayurveda sa uchayte ||"
Why is Ayurveda necessary?

The aim of Ayurveda

is to protect the health of a healthy person. To achieve this it takes care of the health in the following manner : -

-

To protect health during the day (Dincharya)


-

To protect health during the night (Ratricharya)


-

To ensure right living (Sadvritya)


-

To live according to one's characteristic (Trividhya Upstumbh )



It is said that the knowledge of ayurveda is ageless and ever pervading. Lord Brahma got its realisation and the knowledge of ayurveda soon dispersed to the heaven (Devlok) and the earth. Lord Brahma is the founder of Ayurveda. His famous ayurvedic book is called "Brahmasahita". According to different ayurvedic bibles, the generations of ayurvedic followers differ slightly. But still, Brahma, Daksh Prajapati, Ashiwinokumaro, Indra, Bharadwaj, Dhanwantri are considered the pioneers of ayurveda.

In those days, ayurveda was the world wide medical science followed and other medical sciences got inspired from it.
FAMILY TREE OF AYURVEDA
Ayurveda is divided into 8 parts
- Surgery (Shalya)
- E.N.T (Shalaakya)
- Medicine (Kaya chikitsa)
- Science of ghosts ( Bhoot Vidya )
- Pediatrics (Komar Bhritya)
- Toxicology (Agat tantra)
- Rejuvenating science (Rasayan tantra)
Few Ancient Ayurvedic text books are mentioned as following
Chikitsa darshan (Author : - Deevodas)
Chikitsa Kaumudi (Author : - Kashiraj )
Chikitsa Saar tantra (Author : - Ashwinikumar)
Chikitsa tatva Vigyanan (Author : - Dhanvantri )
Dvaidhnirnay tantra (Author : - Augustya)
Gyanarav (Author : - Yama)
Jeevdaan (Author : - Chaivan)
Nidaan (Author : - Pel)
Sarvadhar (Author : - Karath)
Sarva saar (Author : - Buddha)
Tantra saar (Author : - Jaabaal)
Vaidya Sandhe Bhanjan (Author : - Janak)
Vedank saar (Author : -Jaajali)
Vedhak Sarvasva (Author : - Nakul)
Vyadhi sindhu Vimardhanan (Author : - Sahdev )
Definition of Pediatric Ayurveda
It is that part of Ayurveda, which deals with child rearing, childhood illness and their treatment.

Komar Bhritya = Komar +Bhritya.

Komar (Kumar) is a title by which a child is addressed. Bhritya denotes the parent, child care taker or guide.

Komar Bhritya involves care child rearing and treating disease right from the time of conception up-to the age of maturity (up to 16 years). It also involves maintaining and protecting good health of the child. It is a scientific method of dealing with childhood disease symptoms, their

diagnosis and treatment

.

The following aspects of prevention and care are taken care of in Pediatric Ayurveda: -
- Infertility: its causes and its treatment.
- Proper development of fetus in the uterus.
- Care of maternal illness which may affect the fetus.
- Care of difficulties and problems during labor.

"Aapram satvaye Komarbhritya Garbhamarmani Prajnane Ch Viyatet|"
-Pr.11.A.16/2

If considered along the lines of modern medical science, Pediatric Ayurveda can be divided into 3 parts.
- Gynecology (Stree Roga Vigyan ).
- Obstetrics and Fetal medicine (Prasuti Vigyan).
- Pediatrics (Balchikitsa Vigyan)

Today's era is the era of specialization. As a result, newer research and developments are occurring faster leading to subs-specialization and super-specialization. A doctor specialized in one category is not able to attain complete knowledge of other specialties. As a result, one patient may have to go to several consultants in order to treat his disease. But one should not forget that a human being is a psychophysical organism (Manodehik Tantra ) and his functioning is interdependent on various organs simultaneously. Ayurveda not only treats the disease symptoms but also takes care of the diseased personality and the person in totality.

Thus, this division of Ayurvedic branches have been done keeping the above in mind.

The subjects covered in Pediatric ayurveda are thus overlapping with each other because all these subjects are somehow related to child health. Right from conception, fetal growth and development (monthly), birth, neonatal development, infancy, toddler, pre-schooler, school-going child, adolescent - they are all related to child growth and development. Any subject related directly and indirectly to child health is included in Pediatric Ayurveda.
Importance of Pediatric Ayurveda
Pediatric Ayurveda lays the foundation of good life. It gives importance to the physical, mental and psychological growth of a child. If child rearing, childcare and treatment are carried out according to the rules of Pediatric Ayurveda, then definitely the child will turn into happy and healthy adult.

At every stage of development of the child, there are special problems faced for e.g. during teething (Dhantodbhav), it is natural for a child to have loose motions and fever. At every age of the child, the pattern of the disease changes for which the treatment also has to change accordingly for e.g. secondary sex characteristics appear during the adolescent age at which the abnormal pubertal developments may also occur. Children in general, are more prone to infectious disease as compared to the adult. Children are also more prone to accidents for e.g. Foreign body aspirations.

Childhood diagnosis is different and difficult as compared to that in the adult. Children are scared to go to the doctor and are unable to communicate about their symptoms. They are not easily ready for a physical examination and have to be coaxed to do that. Thus, a physician has to be alert and careful while dealing with children.

Childhood treatment is also different as compared to the adult. The method of 5 elemental actions (panchkarma) used in adults is not recommended in children and if used, has to be used with utmost caution. Children do not tolerate bad tasting (Vish mishrit, Tukshana, Katu, Tikt, Kasaya) medicine. They prefer sweet and tasty medicine. Thus treatment in children has its own importance.
Literature related to Pediatric ayurveda
In the ancient ages, Pediatric Ayurveda was at its peak. At that time all the sub groups of Ayurveda had their specific textbooks available, later with further research more and more scriptures were added. But due to the erosion of time, foreign attacks on India and religious conversion; this science soon lost its importance and the medicine and its scriptures gradually started disappearing. Whatever scripts were hidden here & there and the original as well as translated versions taken away by the foreigners are the only ones that have survived time.

Today, the bible available on Pediatric Ayurveda (Komar Bhritya) is Kaashyap sahita/Vridhajeevak tantra (Author - Vridhajeevak). There were also renowned teachers of Pediatric Ayurveda even before and after the era of Kaashyap. Other important text books of Pediatric Ayurveda are:-
- Vridha Kaashyap Sahita
- Parvatak Tantra
- Bandhak Tantra
- Harinyaksha tantra
- Kumar Tantra

European book "Bibliotheque National Paris" has described the work of Ravana "Baalkumar Tantra, Kumar Tantra and Dasgrive Baal Tantra". In seventh century AD, even Chinese literature described the above books. Even newer textbooks like "Bhaisachya ratnavali" and "Yogratnar" have also described Pediatric Ayurveda.

Now a-days, books are available which describe either/and both modern as well as olden Pediatric Ayurveda. Among these, the following books are available :-
- Kumar Tantra(Author-Kaviraj Yaminibhusan 1920)
- Komar Bhritya (Author- Acharya Raghuvir Prasad Trivedi 1948)
- Kumar Tantra Samuchay(Author - Acharya Ramanath Trivedi 1977)
- Baal Rog Chikitsa (Author - Acharya Ramanath Trivedi)
- Abhinav Komar Bhritya(Author - Acharya Radhanath - 1978)

In 1962, a monthly magazine on childhood diseases "Shishu Rogank" was started. And in 1967, "Baal Rogank" was published. In 1975, Sudhanidi published "Shishu Rogank Chikitsa." In addition, several editions of Komar Bhritya are available in different Indian languages.
DIVISION OF PEDIATRICS INTO DIFFERENT STAGES ACCORDING TO THE AGE OF CHILD
In Pediatric Ayurveda , ages from 1-16 years are considered as part of childhood. They are divided into 3 parts:-
- Chirab:- From birth to 1 year.
- Chiranath:- From 2 - 3 years.
- Annad :- from 4 to 16 years.
(Note: Kaashyap Sahita has divided the active life of man into 6 stages of which 3 stages are part of the pediatric age.
- Garbhavasta - From conception to birth.
- Balya avasta - From birth to 1 year.
- Komar avasta - From 1 year to 16 years.)

Chirab:- The stage during which the infant is dependent on mother's milk is called Chirab. This stage is from birth to approximately 1 year of age.

Chiranath:- The stage in which the child eats other food apart from the mother's milk is called Chiranath. This is usually 2 - 3 years of age.

Annad:-The stage in which the child is no longer dependent on mother's milk and can eat normal adult diet is called Annad. This stage is from 4 year to 16 years of age.

These stages do not have a clear cut demarcation line and they overlap with each other. But this classification has its own importance. Each stage denotes a special developmental aspect of the child's growth. This classification is useful to determine the cause of disease and also the right treatment in right quantity.
OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS
Now a-days, according to social factors, Ayurvedic pediatrics is divided into 4 parts:-
- Navjaat (Newborn)-From birth to 1 month of age.
- Shishu (Infant)- From 2 months to 2 years of age
- Balak (Child) - From 3 years to 12 years of age
- Kishor (Adolescent)- From 13 to 16 years of age.

Other routinely followed classification is :-
- Jaat Mantra: The period after birth during which the child is still attached to the umbilical cord and the placenta

"Jaat asya:" "Jaat matashrya"

- Satojaat (Period of neonate):- (Satojaat = Early origin) - It encompasses the new born stage.
- Baalak (Child):- This is the stage during which the child develops maximum physical and mental maturity.
- Pogat :- The stage from 5 to 10 years has been described as Pogat by some ayurvedic teachers. Some have described this as a stage from 5 to 16 years.
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