VITAMIN B COMPLEX

What are the

types of Vitamin B

?

Vitamin B complex consists of eight water soluble vitamins that have important role in metabolism in the body. B complex vitamin consists of
- Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
- Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
- Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
- Vitamin B5 (Panthotenic acid)
- Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
- Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
- Folic Acid
- Vitamin B12


VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE)



What is the

function of Vitamin B1

?

Thiamine strengthens the immune system and improves the body's ability to withstand stressful conditions. It is named B1 because it was the first B vitamin discovered. It is required for the body to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which every cell of the body uses for energy. It is also required for proper functioning of the heart and to co-ordinate activity of nerves and muscles.

Which are the

common food sources of vitamin B1

?

Very good sources of vitamin B1 include asparagus, romaine lettuce, mushrooms, spinach, sunflower seeds, tuna, green peas, tomatoes, eggplant and sprouts.

What happens to thiamine on heating food?
Vitamin B1 is highly unstable, and easily damaged by heat. Processing of grains for use in cereals, and in particular, heating of processed grain components can result in the loss of more than half of the grains' B1 content.

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B1

?

Daily requirement ranges from 2-8 mg in children less than 8 years and 12-14 mg in older children.

What are the

symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency

?

Thiamine deficiency is rare. However it can lead to fatigue, irritability, depression and abdominal discomfort. Deficiency can lead to a condition called as Beri-Beri which are of 2 types: (a) Wet beriberi affects the heart and patients present with breathlessness and swelling around the body. (b) Dry beriberi which leads to partial paralysis. People whose diet consists mainly of highly processed carbohydrates (such as polished white rice, white flour, and white sugar)

What happens if

over dosage of vitamin B1

is taken?

No known toxicity is known with high dose of vitamin B1.


VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN)



What are the

functions of vitamin B2

?

Riboflavin is required to protect cells from oxygen damage. Like the other B vitamins, it plays a key role in energy metabolism, and for the metabolism of fats, ketone bodies, carbohydrates, and proteins. It also helps keep mucous membranes (such as those lining the mouth) healthy. This vitamin is responsible for the yellow colour of urine that occurs when taking vitamin tablets.

What happens to vitamin B2 on heating food?
This vitamin is lost on heating food. Milling of cereals also leads to loss by 60%.

Which are the

food sources of vitamin B2

?

Common food sources of vitamin B2 are milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables especially spinach, liver, kidneys, legumes, tomatoes, yeast, mushrooms, and almonds.

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B2

?

For children 8 years and younger, the daily intake recommended is 0.3-0.6mg and for older children it is 0.9-1.2mg

What happens in

vitamin B2 deficiency states

?

Riboflavin deficiency usually occurs with deficiencies of other B vitamins. Deficiency leads to stomatitis, cheilitis, glossitis

What happens if over dosage of vitamin B2 is taken?
No known toxicity is known with high dose of vitamin B2.


VITAMIN B3 (NIACIN)



What is the

function of Vitamin B3

?

Like its fellow B-complex vitamins, niacin is important in energy production. It is essential for conversion of the body's proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into usable energy. Niacin is involved in both DNA repair, and the production of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland. In pharmacological doses, niacin has been proven to reverse atherosclerosis.

Which

food is rich in niacin

?

Foods rich in tryptophan, such as dairy products, can compensate for not consuming enough niacin in the diet because the body can convert tryptophan to niacin. Good sources of niacin are avocados, dates, tomatoes, leaf vegetables, broccoli, carrots, sweet potatoes, asparagus, mushrooms, liver, heart and kidney, chicken, beef, fish: tuna, salmon, milk, eggs and mushrooms.

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B3

?
Recommended daily allowance:
0-8 years=2-8 mg/d, 9-18 years = 12-14 mg/d

What are the

symptoms of vitamin B3 deficiency

?

Niacin deficiency can lead to a condition called as pellagra characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. People who live in areas where maize (Indian corn) is the main food source are at risk of developing pellagra because maize is low in niacin and tryptophan

What happens with

over dosage of vitamin B3

?

High doses can cause flushing, itching, gout, and liver damage (rarely) and high blood sugar.


VITAMIN B5 (PANTHOTENIC ACID)



What is the

function of Vitamin B5

?

Pantothenic acid is needed to release energy from sugars, starches, and fats. It helps to support the adrenal glands.

Which

food is rich in panthotenic acid

?

Small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in whole-grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat, and royal jelly

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B5

?
Recommended daily allowance:
0-8 years=1.7-2 mg/d; 9-18 years=4-5mg/d

What are the

symptoms of vitamin B5 deficiency

?

Deficiency can lead to fatigue, listlessness, sensations of weakness, burning foot syndrome.

What happens with over dosage of vitamin B5?
No toxicity is known with over dosage.


VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE)



What is the

function of Vitamin B6

?
Pyridoxine is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats, as well as for normal nerve function and for the formation of red blood cells.

Which

food is rich in pyridoxine

?

Foods rich in vitamin B6 are spinach, bell peppers, turnip greens, garlic, tuna, cauliflower, mustard greens, banana, celery, cabbage, crimini mushrooms, asparagus, broccoli, kale, collard greens, Brussels sprouts, cod and chard.

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B6

?
Recommended daily allowance:
0-8 years=0.2-0.6mg/d; 9-18 years = 1.0-1.2mg/d

What are the

symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency

?

Deficiency of pyridoxine can lead to anemia, nerve damage, seizures, skin problems, and sores in the mouth.

What happens with

over dosage of vitamin B6

?

Over dosage of pyridoxine can damage the nerves and cause sensory neuropathy.


VITAMIN B7 (BIOTIN)



What is the

function of Vitamin B7

?

Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. It may also be helpful in maintaining normal blood sugar. Biotin is often recommended for strengthening hair and nails.

Which food is rich in biotin?

Foods with a relatively high biotin content

include egg yolk, liver, and some vegetables.

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B7

?
Recommended daily allowance:
0-8 years=5-8mcg/d; 9-18 years=20-25mcg/d

What are the

symptoms of vitamin B7 deficiency

?

Biotin deficiency is relatively rare and mild. Deficiency is caused by the excessive consumption of raw egg whites, which contain high levels of the protein avidin, which binds biotin strongly. Deficiency can cause seborrheic dermatitis and hair loss along with depression, lethargy, and peripheral neuropathy.

What happens with

over dosage of vitamin B7

?

No known toxicity is known with over dosage.


FOLIC ACID



What is the

function of folic acid

?

Folic acid with vitamin B12, is necessary for the formation of normal red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA. Folate is also necessary for normal development of a fetus's nervous system. A low intake of folate may increase the risk of fractures in older adults.

Which food is rich in folic acid?
Leafy vegetables such as spinach, asparagus, turnip greens, legumes such as dried or fresh beans, peas and lentils, fortified grain products, sunflower seeds, citrus foods are rich in folic acid.

What is the

daily requirement of folic acid

?
Recommended daily allowance:
0-8 years=65-200mcg/d, 9-18 years=300-400mcg/d

What are the

symptoms of folic acid deficiency

?

Deficiency results in anemia, mouth ulcers, diarrhea, depression, confusion, anemia, and brain defects in fetus.

What happens with

over dosage of folic acid

?

Folate is generally not toxic.


VITAMIN B12



What is the

function of Vitamin B12

?

Vitamin B12 with folic acid is necessary for the formation and maturation of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA. Vitamin B12 is also necessary for normal nerve function.

Which food is rich in Vitamin B12?
Vitamin B12 occurs in foods that come from animals. Plants are poor sources of vitamin B12. Thus in vegetarians, supplementation may be required.

What is the

daily requirement of vitamin B12

?
Recommended daily allowance:
0-8 years=0.4-0.9mcg/d; 9-18 years=1.2-2.4mcg/d

What are the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency?
Vitamin B12 is stored in the human body for 3-5 years and hence deficiency is rare. Deficiency results in anemia, peripheral neuropathy, memory loss. In infants it can lead to tremors.

What happens with

over dosage of vitamin B12

?

No known toxicity is known with excess intake of vitamin B12.
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