Prevalence and Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in Indian Children: A Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study
Jaishree Vasudevan*, Gopireddy Murali Mohan Reddy**, Antony Jenifer*, Thayumanavan S*, Uma Devi*, Rathinasamy M*
*Department of Pediatrics and **Department of Community Medicine, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Abstract

Aim: To determine the prevalence and clinical, socio-economic and demographic factors determining hypovitaminosis D in children aged 6 months and 18 years.

Material and methods: Hospital based Cross-sectional study, conducted in pediatric outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital. A sample of 230 children between 6 months and 18 years attending OPD, who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study by systematic random sampling. The relevant socio-demographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters (including serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25 hydroxy Vitamin D3 levels) of the study population were assessed using standardized questionnaire and laboratory investigations.

Results:The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was 62.2%. However, only 7(3%) had overt rickets.The odds ratio of hypovitaminosis D were 1.3(95% CI 0.7-2.4), 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-4)and 5.3(95% CI 0.6-44.3) times higher in 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years and above 15 years respectively, compared with children below 5 years. Female children were 1.9 (95% CI 1.3 to 4.0) times more at risk of having vitamin D deficiencywhen compared to males. The odds of hypovitaminosis D were 1.8 (95% CI 0.8 to 3.8, p-value 0.12), 4.2 (95% CI 2.1 to 8.5, p-value< 0.01), and 6.9 (95% CI 2.3 to 20.5, p-value< 0.05) times more in lower middle, upper middle and upper socio economic groups respectively when compared with lower socio economic status children.The odds of hypovitaminosis D were 1.3 (95% CI 0.2 to 7.7, p-value 0.74), 2.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 7.5, p-value 0.07), and 6.3 (95% CI 1.5 to 25.4, p-value 0.01) times more children with mother’s educated up to primary school, graduation and post graduation when compared to children of illiterate mothers.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D was very high in Indian children. Female sex, higher socio economic status, higher educational status of the mother were the factors with strong positive association with hypovitaminosis D.
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